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Physics formulas for Class 11 is one of the best tools to prepare physics for Class 11 examination and various competitive examinations. Physics is a subject that deals with the natural world and the properties of energy and matter, etc. The 11th standard is filled with advanced level physics questions and numerical which students should understand in order to score good marks in their board exam. The physics formulas for Class 11 will help students excel in their examinations and prepare them for various medical and engineering entrance exams.

Physics is filled with complex formulas and students must understand the concepts behind the formulas to excel in the subject. The physics formulas are given in proper order so that students can learn the subject step by step. Students are advised to learn the formulas thoroughly to score good marks in important physics topics like thermodynamics, electric current, laws of motion, optics, energy conversion, etc.



Projectile Motion

Work, Power and Energy


Waves Motion

Sound Wave

Heat and Temperature

Specific Heat

List of Physics Formulas Class 11 IIT

The list of physics formulas for class 11 IIT studies is given here below:

1. Work, Energy, and Power

Work, energy, and power are the three most used terms in Physics. They are probably the first thing that a student learns in Physics. Work and energy are considered as the two sides of the same coin.

a. Work

Definition: In physics, work is said to be done whenever a force applied to an object, makes the object move.

Formula: Work is calculated by the product of applied force and the displacement of the object.

W = F × d

Unit: The SI unit of work the joule (J), also 1J = 1 Nm (newton-meter)

b. Energy

Definition: Energy is defined as the capacity of a body to do work.

Formula: The formula potential energy is given by:

P.E. = mgh

The formula for kinetic energy is given by:

K.E. = ½(mv²)

Unit: The SI unit of energy is the same as that of work, and it is the joule (J), this unit is named in honor of an English physicist Sir James Prescott Joule.

c. Power

Definition: Power can be defined as the rate at which work is done i.e. energy converted.

Formula: The formula for power is

P = W/t

Unit: The unit of power is Watt (W).

2. Surface Tension Formula

Surface tension is the natural tendency of a liquid surface to resist any force applied on it. Due to surface tension, liquids tend to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. The surface of a liquid behaves like an elastic sheet.

Mathematically, surface tension is expressed as:



F = force per unit length

L = length in which the applied force acts

T = surface tension of the liquid

3. Simple Harmonic Motion Formula

The simple harmonic motion is a periodic motion in which the restoring force on the object is directly proportional to the displacement of the object from the mean position. The restoring force of the simple harmonic motion is always directed towards the mean position.

The acceleration of a particle under simple harmonic motion (SHM) is given by,

a(t) = -ω2 x(t).


a = acceleration of the particle

ω = angular velocity of the particle.

4. Projectile Motion Formula

The projectile motion is a motion in which a body is projected in the air, following a curved path under the influence of gravity. When a body is projected in the horizontal direction with a constant velocity, it undergoes free-fall motion.

The formula for projectile motion is given by:

Horizontal distance: x = Vx t

Horizontal velocity: Vx = Vxo 

Vertical distance: y = Vyot – ½(gt²)

Vertical velocity: Vy = Vyo  – gt


V= the velocity (along the x-axis)

Vy = the velocity (along the y-axis)

Vxo = Initial velocity (along the x-axis)

Vyo = Initial velocity (along the y-axis)

g = acceleration due to gravity

t = the time taken

The equations of the projectile motion are:

Time of flight: t =

The maximum height reached: H =

Horizontal length: R =


Vo = Initial velocity of the particle

sin θ = Component of velocity along the y-axis

cos θ = component of velocity along the x-axis

5. Gravitational Force Formula

Every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the masses of the two objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Mathematically, the gravitational force formula is given by:

F = Gm1m2/r2


G = universal gravitational constant

m1 = mass of the first object

m2 = mass of the second object

r = distance between the two objects

6. Waves Motion Formulas

General equation of wave: d2y/dx2 = 1/v2 . d2y/dt2

Notation: Amplitude A, Frequency v, Wavelength λ, Period T, Angular Frequency ω, Wave Number k,

T = 1/v = 2/ ω,

U = v λ

K= 2/ λ

Progressive wave traveling with speed u:

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

y = f(t – x/v), => +x,

y = f(t + x/v), => -x

Progressive sine wave:

y = Asin(kx – ωt),

= Asin(2(x/ λ – t/T))

7. Sound Wave Formula

Displacement wave: s = s0sinω(t – x/u)

Pressure wave: p = p0cosω(t – x/u)

P0 = (Bω/u) s0

Speed of sound waves:

uliquid =

usolid =

ugas =

Intensity: I = 22B/u . s02v2 = p02v/2B = p02/2pv

SPH3U – Grade 11 Physics Formula Sheet

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