IB Chemistry is a challenging but rewarding subject that can open up many opportunities for students. The IB Chemistry syllabus covers a wide range of topics, from the basics of matter and chemical change to more advanced concepts such as thermodynamics and equilibrium.
This revision guide is designed to help students prepare for the IB Chemistry exams. It provides a comprehensive overview of the syllabus, with clear explanations of key concepts and plenty of practice questions.
Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships between the reactants and products in chemical reactions. It is a fundamental concept in chemistry, and it is essential for understanding many chemical processes.
The following are some of the key concepts of stoichiometry:
- Mole: A mole is a unit of measurement used to count the number of atoms, molecules, or other particles. One mole of a substance contains Avogadro’s number of particles, which is approximately 6.02 x 10^23.
- Molar mass: The molar mass of a substance is the mass of one mole of that substance. It can be calculated by adding the atomic masses of the atoms in the substance.
- Stoichiometric coefficients: Stoichiometric coefficients are numbers that are used to balance chemical equations. They indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products in a reaction.
Atomic theory is the model of the atom that is currently accepted by scientists. It states that atoms are composed of three subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
The following are some of the key concepts of atomic theory:
- Protons: Protons are positively charged particles that are found in the nucleus of the atom.
- Neutrons: Neutrons are uncharged particles that are also found in the nucleus of the atom.
- Electrons: Electrons are negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of the atom.
Periodicity is the variation of chemical and physical properties of elements as a function of their atomic number. The periodic table of elements is a chart that organizes the elements according to their atomic number.
The following are some of the key concepts of periodicity:
- Periods: The rows of the periodic table are called periods.
- Groups: The columns of the periodic table are called groups.
- Periodic trends: Periodic trends are the patterns of behavior that elements exhibit as a function of their atomic number.
Chemical bonding and structure
Chemical bonding is the process by which atoms combine to form molecules. There are three main types of chemical bonding: ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and metallic bonding.
The following are some of the key concepts of chemical bonding and structure:
- Ionic bonding: Ionic bonding occurs when one atom donates electrons to another atom.
- Covalent bonding: Covalent bonding occurs when two atoms share electrons.
- Metallic bonding: Metallic bonding occurs when metal atoms share their valence electrons in a sea of electrons.
Energetics is the study of the flow of energy in chemical and physical processes. Thermodynamics is a branch of energetics that deals with the relationship between heat and other forms of energy.
The following are some of the key concepts of energetics/thermodynamics:
- Internal energy: Internal energy is the total energy of a system.
- Heat: Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between two systems.
- Work: Work is the transfer of energy between a system and its surroundings.
- Enthalpy: Enthalpy is the heat content of a system.
- Entropy: Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system.
Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates of chemical reactions. It is concerned with the factors that affect the speed of a reaction, such as the concentration of the reactants, the temperature, and the presence of a catalyst.
The following are some of the key concepts of chemical kinetics:
- Rate of reaction: The rate of reaction is the change in the concentration of a reactant or product over time.
- Order of reaction: The order of reaction is the number of times the concentration of a reactant affects the rate of reaction.
- Rate constant: The rate constant is a proportionality constant that relates the rate of reaction to the concentration of the reactants.
Equilibrium is a state of balance in which the forward and backward reactions of a chemical reaction occur at equal rates.
The following are some of the key concepts of equilibrium:
- Equilibrium constant: The equilibrium constant is a measure of the relative amounts of reactants and products at equilibrium